History of Kano State, Nigeria

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About Kano State

Kano State is a state located in North-Western Nigeria. Created on May 27, 1967 from part of the Northern Region, Kano state borders Katsina State to the north-west, Jigawa State to the north-east, and Bauchi and Kaduna states to the south. The capital of Kano State is Kano.

Kano State is the second largest industrial center in Nigeria and the largest in Northern Nigeria with textile, tanning, footwear, cosmetics, plastics, enamelware, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, furniture and other industries. Others include agricultural implements, soft drinks, food and beverages, dairy products, vegetable oil, animal feeds etc.

History

The Hausa Kingdom of Kano was based on an ancient settlement of Dalla Hill. While small chiefdoms were previously present in the area, according to the Kano Chronicle, Bagauda, a grandson of the mythical hero Bayajidda,. became the first king of Kano in 999, reigning until 1063. Muhammad Rumfa ascended to the throne in 1463 and reigned until 1499.

During his reign he reformed the city, expanded the Sahelian Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace), and played a role in the further Islamization of the city as he urged prominent residents to convert. The Hausa state remained independent until the Fulani conquest of 1805.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Fulani Islamic leader Usman dan Fodio led a jihad affecting much of northern Nigeria, leading to the emergence of the Sokoto Caliphate. Kano became the largest and most prosperous province of the empire. This was one of the last major slave societies, with high percentages of enslaved population long after the Atlantic slave trade had been cut off.

Heinrich Barth, a classical scholar who spent several years in northern Nigeria in the 1850s, estimated the percentage of slaves in Kano to be at least 50%, most of whom lived in slave villages.
The Kano Chronicle stated that the Kingdom of Kano was founded as one of the Seven True Hausa States or Hausa Bakwai by Baguada in 999. Bagauda was a grandson of Abuyazidu (Bayajda), who was acknowledged by legend to be the origin of the Hausa people. During the rule of King Gajemasu from 1095 to 1134, the kingdom’s capital was transferred from Sheme towards the current location. In 1340s, Islam was introduced to Kano by Malinke scholars, who originated from Mali Empire. Yaji, who ruled from 1349 to 1385, may have been the first Muslim king of Hausa. The religion Islam got the blame for Kano’s loss against Zaria around 1400 and it was relinquished by King Kanajeji.

People & Culture

Image result for Kano State Culture

According to the 2016 PON census (unofficial) figures from Nigeria Kano State had a population totaling 9,383,682. Officially, Kano State is the most populous state in the country. The state is mostly populated by Hausa people.
The official language of Kano State is Hausa language, but Fulani languages is commonly spoken.

Geography

Kano State of the Federal Republic of Nigeria lies between latitude 130N in the North and 110N in the South and longitude 80W in the West and 100E in the East. Kano State is made up of the following forty four local government areas: Ajingi, Albasu, Bagwai, Bebeji, Bichi, Bunkure, Dala, Dambatta, Dawakin Kudu, Dawakin Tofa, Doguwa, Gabasawa, Garko, Garun Mallam, Gaya, Gezawa, Gwale, Gwarzo, Kabo, Karaye, Kibiya, Kiru, Kumbotso, Kura, Kunchi, Madobi, Makoda, Minjibir, Kano Municipal, Nassarawa, Rimin Gado, Rogo, Shanono, Sumaila, Takai, Tarauni, Tsanyawa, Tudun Wada, Tofa, Warawa and Wudil. The total land area of Kano State is 20,760sq kilometers with a population of 9,383,682 (2006 provisional result). Some Local Government areas of Jigawa State were part of Kano Emirate before the creation of that state. The people of Kano State who have no other hometown call themselves Kanawa.

Kano City has been the capital of Kano State since the earliest recorded time. It is located on latitude 12.000N and longitude 8.300E within the semi-arid Sudan savannah zone of West Africa about 840 kilometers from the edge of the Sahara desert. Kano has a mean height of about 472.45m above sea level.

Kano City has expanded over the years and has become the third largest conurbation in Nigeria; it had a population of 1,412,255 when the last population census was conducted in 1991. It is made up of six local government areas: Municipal, Gwale, Dala, Tarauni, Nassarawa and Fagge. Kano’s most enduring legacy Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace) the seat of Kano’s prestigious Sarauta institution (Kingship) built over five hundred years ago is located in the Municipal Local Government Area. The Kano State Government House is located in Tarauni Local Government Area.

Climate

The temperature of Kano usually ranges between a maximum of 330C and a minimum of 15.80C although sometimes during the harmattan it falls down to as low as 100C. Kano has two seasonal periods, which consist of four to five months of wet season and a long dry season lasting from October to April. The movement of the South West maritime air masses originating from the Atlantic Ocean, influences the wet season which starts from May and ends in September. The commencement and length of wet season varies between northern and southern parts of Kano State. The length of the season in Riruwai, which is southern part of Kano State is six months from early May to late September. While in northern parts it is from June to early September.

The average rainfall is between 63.3mm + 48.2mm in May and 133.4mm + 59mm in August the wettest month. The movement of the tropical maritime air masses from the Southwest to the North determines the weather of Kano State during the wet season. This air mass carries a lot of moisture from over the Atlantic Ocean. This moisture condenses when it is forced to rise by convection or over a barrier of highlands or an air mass; it then falls back as rain. The period of the heights occurs when the sun passes over West Africa between March and June.

The dry season starts in October and lasts till about April of the following year. Temperatures are low during this period because the sun is in the Southern Hemisphere and because of movement of the desiccating continental air mass, which originates from the Sahara area and blows from the Northeast carrying along with it the harmattan dust. This is also the harvesting season.

Vegetation

The vegetation of Kano State is the semi-arid savannah. The Sudan Savannah is sandwiched by the Sahel Savannah in the north and the Guinea Savannah in the south. The savannah has been described as the zone that provides opportunity for optimal human attainment. This is because it is rich in faunal and floral resources, it is suitable for both cereal agriculture and livestock rearing, and the environment is relatively easy for movement of natural resources and manufactured goods (Connah 1987: 97-99).

The canopies of the trees are very wide and most of them are less than 20m tall. The following are the common trees of Kano State: Acacia albida (Hausa: gawo), Acacia nilotica (Hausa: gabaruwa), baobab Adanosia digitata (Hausa: kuka), Anogeissus leiocarpus (Hausa: marke), neem Azadirachta indica (Hausa: dogon yaro), desert date Balanties aegyptica (Hausa aduwa), ebony Diospyros mespiliformis (Hausa: kanya), mahogany Khaya senegalensis (Hausa: madachi), locust bean Parkia clappertoniana (Hausa: dorawa), Piliostigma thonningii (Hausa: kargo), Sclerocarya birrea (Hausa: danya), Vitex doniana (Hausa: dinya), Ziziphus spina-christi (Hausa: kurna) (Nichol 1988). These trees are very resistant to drought.

It has been suggested that these products have been available as part of the vegetable resources in the West African savannah for two to three thousand years. Domesticated crops include sorghum, millet and African rice, several indigenous yams, two African groundnuts, cowpeas and black beniseed (Connah 1987:101).

The natural vegetation of Kano State has been modified as result of several centuries of human activities such as bush clearing and burning for cultivation and hunting as well as animal grazing.

Economy and society

Agriculture

Subsistence and commercial agriculture is mostly practiced in the outlying districts of the state. Some of the food crops cultivated are millet, cowpeas, sorghum, maize and rice for local consumption while groundnuts and cotton are produced for export and industrial purposes. During the colonial period and several years after the country’s independence, the groundnuts produced in the state constituted one of the major sources revenue of the country. Kano State is a major producer of hides and skins, sesame, soybean, cotton, garlic, gum arabic and chili pepper.

Related Post: Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport and Location

Commerce

Commercial activities in Kano first developed with the establishment of the Kurmi market by the Emir of Kano Muhammadu Rumfa in the 16th Century CE. Subsequent leaders made contributions to the emergence of Kano as a leading commercial center in Sudanic Africa. During the Caliphate period in the 19th century the Emirs Ibrahim Dabo and Sulaimanu encouraged traders to move from Katsina, capitalising on raids from the Hausa Sultanate of Maradi. The Jihad leaders of the Caliphate encouraged Kola nut trade and Kano was the greatest beneficiary with an annual turnover of about $30 million. Craft industries also evolved in the pre-colonial period contributing to the prosperity of the province.

Industry

Kano State is the second largest industrial center after Lagos State in Nigeria and the largest in Northern Nigeria with textile, tanning, footwear, cosmetics, plastics, enamelware, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, furniture and other industries. Others include agricultural implements, soft drinks, food and beverages, dairy products, vegetable oil, animal feeds etc.

Tourism

The tourist attractions in the state include:

  • Kurmi Market established in the 15th century,
  • Kano’s centuries-old city wall,
  • Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace, the oldest continuous site of authority in Nigeria)
  • kano zoo. Zoo road

Universities

Kano state is blessed with universities which include one federal, two states universities and one first private university.

  • Bayero University Kano (BUK) founded in the year 1977.
  • Kano State University of Technology (KUT), currently Kano University of Science and Technology (KUST), created in the year 2000.
  • Yusuf Maitama Sule University Kano (YUSMUK), formerly known as North West University, Kano (NWU, kano) established in 2012.
  • Skyline University Nigeria (SUN) founded in the year 2018.

Research Centers

The research centers and institute in Kano State:

  • Aminu Kano Center for Democratic Research & Training
  • Center For Research and Documentation, Kano
  • Institute For Agricultural Research, Kano
  • Digital Bridge Institute, Kano

Polytechnics and Colleges

List of the approved Polytechnics and Colleges in the state of Kano.

  • Federal College of Education, Kano
  • Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi
  • Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano
  • Kano State Polytechnic
  • Kano State School of Health Technology
  • Kano State School of Hygiene
  • Kano state College of Arts, Sciences and Remedial Studies (CAS,Kano)
  • Rabi’u Musa Kwankwaso College of Advance and Remedial Studies (RMK CARS,T/Wada)
  • Audu Bako School of Agriculture, Dambatta
  • Aminu Kano College of Islamic and Legal Studies, Kano
  • Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kano
  • Aminu Dabo School of Health Sciences & Technology

Local Government Areas

Kano State consists of forty-four (44) Local Government Areas (LGAs). They are:

LGA Name Area (km2) Census 2006
population
Administrative capital Postal
Code
Local Government Chairman and the Head of the Local Government Council
Fagge 21 200,095 Waje 700 Alh. Habibu Saleh Mai Lemo (APC)
Dala 19 418,759 Gwanmaja 700 Alh. Ibrahim Suleiman Dan’isle (APC)
Gwale 18 357,827 Gwale 700 Alh. Abdullahi Zubair Imam (APC)
Kano Municipal 17 371,243 Kofar Kudu 700 Alh. Mukhtari Ishaq Yakasai (APC)
Tarauni 28 221,844 Unguwa Uku 700 Engr. (Dr.) Mukhtar Umar Zakari (APC)
Nassarawa 34 596,411 Bompai 700 Alh. Lamin Sani Kawaji (APC)
Kumbotso 158 294,391 Kumbotso 700 Alh. Lawan Isma’il (APC)
Ungogo 204 365,737 Ungogo 700 Alh. Shehu Aliyu Ungogo (APC)
Kano Metropolitan Area 499 2,828,861 700
Dawakin Tofa 479 246,197 Dawakin Tofa 701 Alh. Saleh Rabiu (APC)
Tofa 202 98,603 Tofa 701 Alh. Yaro Inuwa (APC)
Rimin Gado 225 103,371 Rimin Gado 701 Alh. Halliru Audu Yalwa (APC)
Bagwai 405 161,533 Bagwai 701 Alh. Ado Isyaku Daddauda (APC)
Gezawa 340 282,328 Gezawa 702 Alh. Ibrahim Isa Jogana (APC)
Gabasawa 605 211,204 Zakirai 702 Alh. Ghali Adamu Garun Danga (APC)
Minjibir 416 219,611 Minjibir 702 Alh. Nasiru Garba Kunya (APC)
Dambatta 732 210,474 Dambatta 702 Muhammadu Audu Wango (APC)
Makoda 441 220,094 Makoda 702 Abubakar Salisu Makoda (APC)
Kunchi 671 110,170 Kunchi 703 Alh. Aminu Adamu Gwarmai (APC)
Bichi 612 278,309 Bichi 703 Alh. Muhammad Sani Muqaddas (APC)
Tsanyawa 492 157,730 Tsanyawa 703 Alh. Safiyanu Muhammad (APC)
Shanono 697 139,128 Shanono 704 Alh. Malami Ibrahim Shanono (APC)
Gwarzo 393 183,624 Gwarzo 704 Alh. Sunusi Abdullahi Gwarzo (APC)
Karaye 479 144,045 Karaye 704 Alh. Ibrahim Ahmad Karaye (APC)
Rogo 802 227,607 Rogo 704 Alh. Abubakar Mustapha Rogo (APC)
Kabo 341 153,158 Kabo 704 Alh. Mamuda Idris Kabo (APC)
Northern Kano State 8,332 3,143,899 701 to 704
Bunkure 487 174,467 Bunkure 710 Alh. Rabiu Bala (APC)
Kibiya 404 138,618 Kibiya 710 Yusuf Shehu Kibiya (APC)
Rano 520 148,276 Rano 710 Alh. Muhammadu Ubale Dan-Kawu (APC)
Tudun Wada 1,204 228,658 Tudun Wada 710 Engr. Ibrahim Nayola (APC)
Doguwa 1,473 150,645 Riruwai 710 Alh. Ali Abdu Doguwa (APC)
Madobi 273 137,685 Madobi 711 Alh. Lurwanu Umar Kanwa (APC)
Kura 206 143,094 Kura 711 Alh. Basiru Abubakar Turaki (APC)
Garun Mallam 214 118,622 Garun Mallam 711 Alh. Sa’adu Abashe (APC)
Bebeji 717 191,916 Bebeji 711 Alh. Mudansir Umar Bebeji (APC)
Kiru 927 267,168 Kiru 711 Nasiru Mu’azu Kiru (APC)
Sumaila 1,250 250,379 Sumaila 712 Abdulhamid Idris Rimi (APC)
Garko 450 161,966 Garko 712 Arc. Hamza Said Garun Ali (APC)
Takai 598 202,639 Takai 712 Alh. Inusa Abdullahi Dambazau (APC)
Albasu 398 187,639 Albasu 712 Alh. Hamisu Abdulhamid (APC)
Gaya 613 207,419 Gaya 713 Alh. Lawan Saleh (APC)
Ajingi 714 172,610 Ajingi 713 Alh. Isa Abdulkadir Tsangaya (APC)
Wudil 362 188,639 Wudil 713 Bello Abubakar (APC)
Warawa 360 131,858 Warawa 713 Alh. Ibrahim Abdullahi Danlasan (APC)
Dawakin Kudu 384 225,497 Dawakin Kudu 713 Alh. Maikudi Yusuf ‘Yargaya (APC)
Southern Kano State 11,554 3,410,922 710 to 713

Languages

The official language of Kano State is Hausa language, but Fulani languages is commonly spoken.

Population

According to the 2006 PON census figures from Nigeria Kano State had a population totaling 9,401,288. Officially, Kano State is the most populous state in the country. The state is mostly populated by Hausa people.

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