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HISTORY

History of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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History

The region of the state was created out of Cross River State on September 23, 1987 by the then Military Administration of General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida

Location

Akwa Ibom is a state in Nigeria. It is located in the coastal southern part of the country called the Niger Delta, lying between latitudes 4°32′N and 5°33′N, and longitudes 7°25′E and 8°25′E. The state is located in the South-South geopolitical zone, and is bordered on the east by Cross River State, on the west by Rivers State and Abia State, and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and the southernmost tip of Cross River State.

Related Post: Akwa Ibom State International Airport

Akwa Ibom is one of Nigeria’s 36 states, with a population of over five million people. The state was created in 1987 from the former Cross River State and is currently the highest oil- and gas-producing state in the country. The state’s capital is Uyo, with over 500,000 inhabitants. Akwa Ibom has an airport and two major seaports on the Atlantic Ocean with a proposed construction of a world-class seaport Ibaka Seaport at Oron. The state also boasts of a 30,000-seat ultramodern sports complex. It is shaped like the Allianz arena stadium and it has modern and world-class facilities. Akwa Ibom state is also home to the Ibom E-Library, a world-class information centre. In addition to English, the main spoken languages are Ibibio, Annang, Eket and Oron

Area:

Akwa Ibom State currently covers a total land area of 7,249 square kilometers.  The area does not take into consideration disputed territories.  It is the 10th largest state in Nigeria in terms of landmass.  About 13.4 percent of the 960km of Nigeria’s Atlantic Ocean coastline runs through  the State.

Political Setting:

Akwa Ibom is one of the 36 States in the Nigerian Federation.  The State is divided into 31 local government  areas with Uyo as the State capital.  Other major towns include; Eket, Ikot Ekpene, Ikot Abasi, Oron, Abak, Itu, Etinan, Ibeno, etc.

People

Image result for About Akwa Ibom Culture

The people of Akwa Ibom State are culturally homogenous with a common identity and are reputed to be the first settlers in the present day South Eastern Nigeria. The three major dialectal groups are Ibibio,

Annang and Oron.  Other sub groups include Eket, Ibeno, Itu Mbonuso and the Andonis.  English is the language of government and business.

Population

With the annual growth rate of the population projected at 3.4%, the 2016 projected population is estimated at 5,451,277 people as follows;

Female         2,680,687

Male              2,770,590

Total             5,450,758

Vegetation:

Akwa Ibom falls within the tropical zone with a dominant vegetation of green foliage of trees and shrubs. It constitutes a major chunk of the nation’s oil-palm belt.  The Atlantic coastline stretches 129km from Oron in the East to Ikot Abasi in the West.

The State also has three distinct vegetation zones: the saline water swamp forest, the fresh water swamp forest and the rain forest.

Climate:

Akwa Ibom State has a tropical climate marked by two distinct seasons:

The dry season (November – March, ) and

The Wet season April – October).

The wet season is usually interrupted by a short dry period in August.  Average temperature of the State ranges from 23 to 31 degrees centigrade.

Main Economic Activities

The main economic activities of the people are fishing (for riverine and coastal dwellers), farming (mostly for upland dwellers), trading, artisanship and white-collar services.  A robust public sector employs significant proportion of the State labour force.

Growth Rate:

Akwa Ibom State Average Growth Rate is estimated at 3.2%

Culture

Image result for About Akwa Ibom Culture

Akwa Ibom is often described as a uni-cultural State where norms, taboos, customs and traditions are the same.

The folkways may vary from one ethnic grouping to another, but the operational cultural norms are basically the same all over the State.  The cultural similarities  bind the people together especially in such areas as cuisines, dressing, dances, songs, rituals, folklores, beliefs and myths.  Almost all aspects of its culture have potentials to provide fascinating experiences for tourists and for investment opportunities.

Special Dances

Asian Ubo Ikpa

Asian Uboikpa means the proud and flamboyant maiden. This dance is performed by maidens between the age of 18 years and 25 years who have successfully gone through the ‘Mbopo’ institution. Mbopo being the period a girl is confined, fattened and drilled on all aspects of home management in preparation for marriage. It is common in almost all the hinterland of the State. Performed by maidens at their prime, Asian Uboikpa therefore is in its visual appeal and celebrates and affirm the youthful innocence and purity in their beauty, while showcasing the popular admonition among the Akwa Ibom people that chastity once lost is lost forever.

Oko

Oko is the male dance which is likened to the war dance because of its ferocious displays. The climax of this dance starts when the dancers’ start slashing at one another with razor sharp machetes and firing at themselves with live bullets from Dane guns. But mysteriously, not a drop of blood is shed as the machetes cannot penetrate the skin of the dancers, or the bullets hurt any of the members of what is obviously a secret society.

Nkerebe

Nkerebe (looking for husband) is another women dance, performed once a year when young girls at the age of puberty prepare to perform the Mboppo nceremony.

Asian Mbre Iban

Asian Mbre Iban are dances performed by maidens who wish to inform unmarried men of the community how beautiful and eligible they are. Other women dances include Akan, Asamba and Uwok which is performed in the villages occasionally.

Ndok Ufok Ebe

The Ndok Ufok Ebe (shame of a bad marriage) is another women dance to express their grievances over maltreatment of women by their husbands. The dance is performed once a year. It is accompanied by songs telling the community about their plight, often, it involves going topless to the market place.

Ebre

There is also the Ebre society women dance performed yearly during harvesting of new yam. During this occasion, women dance to the market place and neighbouring villages. The dance is not only meant to entertain but as well as deliberate protest against what is regarded as male chauvinism, which is reflected in the vulgarity of some of the song texts.

Ministries Departments and Agencies (MDAs) in Akwa Ibom

Here are the list of ministries in Akwa Ibom

  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Justice
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Agriculture and Food Sufficiency
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Finance
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Works
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Education
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Environment
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Transport & Petroleum Resources
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Local Government and Chieftaincy Affairs
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Lands & Town Planning
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Information & Strategy
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Health
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Science & Technology
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Welfare
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Youth & Sports
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Housing & Special Duties
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Economic Development Labour and Manpower Planning
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Investment, Commerce and Industries
  • Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Culture and Tourism
  • Akwa Ibom State Bureau of Political/Legislative Affairs and Water Resources
  • Akwa Ibom State Bureau of Rural Development & Cooperatives
  • Akwa Ibom State Roads and Other Infrastructure Maintenance Agency – AKROIMA

Local Government Areas

Akwa Ibom State consists of thirty one (31) local government areas. They are:

  • Abak
  • Eastern Obolo
  • Eket
  • Esit-Eket
  • Essien Udim
  • Etim-Ekpo
  • Etinan
  • Ibeno
  • Ibesikpo-Asutan
  • Ibiono-Ibom
  • Ika
  • Ikono
  • Ikot Abasi
  • Ikot Ekpene
  • Ini
  • Itu
  • Mbo
  • Mkpat-Enin
  • Nsit-Atai
  • Nsit-Ibom
  • Nsit-Ubium
  • Obot-Akara
  • Okobo
  • Onna
  • Oron
  • Oruk Anam
  • Ukanafun
  • Udung-Uko
  • Uruan
  • Urue-Offong/Oruko
  • Uyo

Demography

The people are predominantly Christian. The main ethnic groups of the state are:

  • Ibibio
  • Annang
  • Oron
  • Eket
  • Obolo

Including their Efik brothers and sisters of Cross River State, they speak various dialects of the Efik-Ibibio Language, which belongs to the Benue–Congo language family, which forms part of the Niger–Congo group of languages.

Despite the homogeneity, no central government existed among the people of what is now Akwa Ibom State prior to the British invasion in 1904. Instead, the Annang, Oron, Efik, Ibonos and Ibibio were all autonomous groups.

Although several Scottish missionaries arrived in Calabar in 1848, and Ibono in 1887, the British did not firmly establish control of the area until 1904. In that year, the Enyong Division was created encompassing the area of the current state of Akwa Ibom, with headquarters at Ikot Ekpene, an Annang city described by the noted Africanist Kaanan Nair, as the cultural and political capital of Annang and Ibibio.

See Also: Akwa Ibom State International Airport

The creation of Enyong Division for the first time allowed the numerous ethnic groups to come together. This further provided a venue for the creation of the Ibibio Welfare Union, later renamed Ibibio State Union. This social organization was first organized as a local development and improvement forum for educated persons and groups who were shut out from the colonial administration in 1929. Nonetheless, some historians have wrongly pointed to the union to buttress their argument about the homogeneity of groups in the area.[citation needed] The Obolo Union, comprising Ibono and Andoni stock, was another strong socioeconomic and cultural organization that thrived in the region. The Ibono people have fought wars to maintain their unique identity and territory in the region more than any other group.

When Akwa Ibom state was created in 1987, Uyo was chosen as the state capital to spread development to all regions of the state.

Education

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The Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Education is tasked with monitoring the education sector of the state. The current region of Akwa Ibom State in old Calabar Kingdom was the first to encounter Western education in Nigeria with the establishment of Hope Waddell Training Institute, at Calabar in 1895, and the Methodist Boys’ High School, Oron in 1905 as well as other top schools such as the Holy Family College at Abak and Regina Coeli College in Essene.

Some educational institutes in the state are:

  • University of Uyo, Uyo
  • Maritime Academy of Nigeria, Oron
  • Akwa Ibom State University [Oruk Anam LGA And Mkpat Enin LGA]
  • Obong University, Obong Ntak
  • Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic Ikot Osurua
  • Uyo City Polytechnic Nduetong Oku
  • Apex Polytechnic
  • Heritage Polytechnic, Eket
  • School of Nursing; Uyo, Eket, Oron, Ikot Ekpene, Etinan
  • Akwa Ibom State College of Education, Afaha Nsit
  • School Of Basic Studies Abak
  • College of Arts & Sciences, Nnung Ukim
  • Ritman University
  • Sure Polytechnic, Ukanafun

Notable People from Akwa Ibom State

  • Obong Victor Attah Former governor of Akwa Ibom State
  • Udom Gabriel Emmanuel, Governor of Akwa Ibom State from May 2015 to date
  • Senator Ita Enang Senior Special Assistant to President Muhammadu Buhari
  • Godswill Obot Akpabio Former governor of Akwa Ibom State. Former Senate Minority Leader
  • Idongesit Nkanga Former military governor of Akwa Ibom State
  • Effiong Bob
  • Chris Ekpenyong Former deputy governor of Akwa Ibom State in the Victor Attah administration.
  • Ufot Ekaette, Secretary to the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007 under President Olusegun Obasanjo
  • Onofiok Luke, the 11th Speaker of the Akwa Ibom State House of Assembly and the Pioneer Speaker of the Nigeria Youth Parliament.
  • Akpan Isemin Elected governor of Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria from January 1992 to November 1993 during the Nigerian Third Republic
  • Late Dominic Cardinal Ekandem (CFR) first cardinal in English-speaking West Africa. First Nigerian Cardinal to qualify as a candidate to the papacy.
  • Late Chief (Dr) Clement Isong (CFR) second governor, Central Bank of Nigeria. First civilian governor of the former Cross River State
  • Charles Bassey, member of 1980 Super Eagles, winner of African Cup of Nations
  • Samuel Okon Peter (OON), (DSP) World heavyweight boxing champion.
  • Vincent Enyeama Professional footballer (Goalie) and former Super Eagle captain.
  • Chief Don Etiebet, Former Minister of Petroleum
  • Nse Ikpe-Etim, Nollywood Actress
  • Ini Edo, Nollywood Actress
  • Ime Bishop Umoh, Nollywood Actor
  • Etim Inyang, Former Inspector General of the Nigerian Police Force (I.G.P) 1985 to 1986

Politics

Politics in Akwa Ibom state are dominated by the three main ethnic groups, the Ibibio, Annang and Oron. Of these three, the Ibibio remain the majority and have held sway in the state since its creation. For the past eight years, the Annang people held sway, since the governor for those eight years was from Ikot Ekpene senatorial district.

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HISTORY

The History of Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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History Of Bayelsa State: Full Geographical Map, Culture & Belief…

 

History Of Bayelsa State…History Of Bayelsa State Full Geographical Map, Culture & Belief | Local Government historical Background,Population and languages. ” Best Review”

Bayelsa-State-Logo

Bayelsa-State-Logo

Overview of Bayelsa State

Bayelsa is a state in southern Nigeria in the core Niger Delta region, between Delta State and Rivers State. Its capital is Yenagoa. The main language spoken is Ijaw with dialects such as Kolukuma, Mein, Bomu, Nembe, Epie-Atisa, and Ogbia. Like the rest of Nigeria, English is the official language. The state was formed in 1996 from part of Rivers State and is thus one of the newest states of the Nigerian federation

Overview-of-Bayelsa-State

      Overview of Bayelsa State

 

History Of Bayelsa State Full Geographical Map, Culture & Belief | Local Government historical Background,Population and languages.

History Of Bayelsa State

Between 1941 and 1956, many nationalist movements were formed mainly to establish ljaw political sovereignty. They pressed the issue of separate political sovereignty before the Willink Commission 1958. In order to allay the fears of the ethnic minorities, the Willink Commission recommended the establishment of the Niger Delta Development Board (NDDB) to tackle the problems of underdevelopment of the area, environmental neglect and political domination. Despite the establishment of the Board, the agitation for state creation, based on the above stated problems, continued until the military wrested political power and control of Nigeria from civilians on 15th January 1966.

In February 1966, Isaac Boro, an ljaw man from Kaiama town in Bayelsa State, with Sam Owonaro, Nottingham Dick and thousands of their supporters unilaterally proclaimed a “Niger Delta Peoples Republic.” But the Federal Government brought the rebellion to a sudden end. On May 27, 1967, the then Rivers State (which was made up the present Rivers and Bayelsa States) was created.

Bayelsa State was created on October 1, 1996 out of the old Rivers State. The name, Bayelsa, is an acronym of three former Local Government areas – Brass, Yenagoa and Sagbama – in the then Rivers State, which had earlier on comprised the entire area now constituting Bayelsa State. The then Brass LGA is what makes up the present Nembe, Brass and Ogbia Local Government Areas; the then Yenagoa LGA consist of the present Yenagoa, Kolokuma/Opokuma and Southern Ijaw Local Government Areas and the then Sagbama LGA is what makes up the present Sagbama and Ekeremor Local Government Areas.

According to the 1952 Census Report, the ljaws of the Niger Delta region have been recognised as one of the ten major ethnic groups with a population of 0.9 million. During the colonial administration, a separate province was created for them. The amalgamation of Southern and Northern Protectorates in 1914 triggered the fear among minority ethnic groups of political domination; hence their agitation for a distinct state comprising the old Brass, Degema and Western ljaw Divisions, under the umbrella of ljaw National Group, started in earnest. During the colonial period, Britain signed many treaties of protection with the chiefs of many coastal communities, especially the ljaws, with the hope that at Nigeria’s independence in 1960, a nation state would be created for them.

The tradition in the old Rivers State, which is still the norm in Bayelsa State now, is the use of acronyms for local government areas. People referred to Brass Local Government Area as BALGA, for short; Yenagoa was simply YELGA, while Sagbama was SALGA. Since personalities from BALGA, YELGA, and SALGA made up the State Creation Movement prior to the 1996 exercise, the proposed name agreed upon was BAYELSA.

 

Bayelsa State Full Geographical Map

Below is Bayelsa State  Map Which comprises of Different Local Government Areas of the state:

Bayelsa-State-Full-Geographical-Map

                    Bayelsa State Full Geographical Map

 

Bayelsa State Local Government Areas 

Bayelsa State consists of eight local government areas:

 

Bayelsa State cultural practices

Although the Ijaw are now primarily Christians (65% profess to be), with Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism and Pentecostal being the varieties of Christianity most prevalent among them, they also have elaborate traditional religious practices of their own. Veneration of ancestors plays a central role in Ijaw traditional religion, while water spirits, known as Owuamapu figure prominently in the Ijaw pantheon. In addition, the Ijaw practice a form of divination called Igbadai, in which recently deceased individuals are interrogated on the causes of their death. Ijaw religious beliefs hold that water spirits are like humans in having personal strengths and shortcomings, and that humans dwell among the water spirits before being born. The role of prayer in the traditional Ijaw system of belief is to maintain the living in the good graces of the water spirits among whom they dwelt before being born into this world, and each year the Ijaw hold celebrations in honor the spirits lasting for several days. Central to the festivities is the role of masquerades, in which men wearing elaborate outfits and carved masks dance to the beat of drums and manifest the influence of the water spirits through the quality and intensity of their dancing. Particularly spectacular masqueraders are taken to actually be in the possession of the particular spirits on whose behalf they are dancing.

The Ijaw are also known to practice ritual acculturation (enculturation), whereby an individual from a different, unrelated group undergoes rites to become Ijaw. An example of this is Jaja of Opobo, the Igbo slave who rose to become a powerful Ibani (Bonny) chief in the 19th century.

There are also a small number of Converts to Islam the most notable being the founder of the Delta People Volunteer Force, Mujahid Dokubo-Asari. Jeremiah Omoto Fufeyin comes from the Ijaw ethnic group.

 

Bayelsa State languages

The Ijaw speak nine closely related Niger–Congo languages, all of which belong to the Ijoid branch of the Niger–Congo tree. The primary division between the Ijo languages is that between Eastern Ijo and Western Ijo, the most important of the former group of languages being Izon, which is spoken by about five million people.

There are two prominent groupings of the Izon language. The first, termed either Western or Central Izon (Ijaw) consists of Western Ijaw speakers: Tuomo Clan, Ekeremor, Sagbama (Mein), Bassan, Apoi, Arogbo, Boma (Bumo), Kabo (Kabuowei), Ogboin, Tarakiri, and Kolokuma-Opokuma.[citation needed] Nembe, Brass and Akassa (Akaha) dialects represent Southeast Ijo (Izon).[citation needed]. Buseni and Okordia dialects are considered Inland Ijo.

The other major Ijaw linguistic group is Kalabari. Kalabari is considered an Eastern Ijaw language but the term “Eastern Ijaw” is not the normal nomenclature. Kalabari is the name of one of the Ijaw clans that reside on the eastern side of the Niger-Delta (Abonnema, Buguma, Bakana, Degema etc.) who form a major group in Rivers State, Other “Eastern” Ijaw clans are the Andoni, Okrika, Ibani (the natives of Bonny, Finima and Opobo) and Nkoroo. They are neighbours to the Kalabari people in present-day Rivers State, Nigeria.

Other related Ijaw subgroups which have distinct languages but very close kinship, cultural and territorial ties with the rest of the Ijaw are the Epie-Atissa, Engenni (also known as Ẹgẹnẹ), and Degema (also called Udekama or Udekaama).[6] The Ogbia clan, as well as residents of Bukuma and Abuloma (Obulom).[citation needed]

It was discovered in the 1980s that a now extinct Berbice Creole Dutch, spoken in Guyana, is partly based on Ijo lexicon and grammar. Its nearest relative seems to be Eastern Ijo, most likely Kalabari (Kouwenberg 1994).

Bayelsa State Clans

The Ijaw ethnic group consists of 50 loosely affiliated clans. These clans are based along kinship lines and/or shared cultural and religious traditions.

Name State Alternate Names
Akassa Bayelsa Akaha, Akasa
Andoni Rivers/Akwa Ibom
Apoi (Eastern) Bayelsa
Apoi (Western) Ondo
Arogbo Ondo
Bassan Bayelsa Basan
Bille Rivers Bile, Bili
Bumo Bayelsa Boma, Bomo
Bonny Rivers Ibani, Uban
Buseni Bayelsa Biseni
Egbema Delta/Edo
Operemor Delta/Bayelsa Operemor, Ekeremo,Ojobo
Ekpetiama Bayelsa
Engenni Rivers Ngeni
Epie-Atissa Bayelsa
Furupagha Edo/ Ondo
Gbaranmatu Delta Gbaranmatu
Gbaran Bayelsa Gbarain
Iduwini Bayelsa/Delta
Isaba Delta
Kabo Delta Kabowei, Kabou
Kalabari Rivers
Kolokuma Bayelsa
Kou Bayelsa
Kula Rivers
Kumbo Delta Kumbowei
Mein Delta/Bayelsa
Nembe Bayelsa
Nkoro Rivers Kala Kirika
Obotebe Delta
Odimodi Delta
Ogbe Delta Ogbe-Ijoh
Ogbia Bayelsa
Ogboin Bayelsa
Ogulagha Delta Ogula
Okordia Bayelsa Okodia, Akita
Okrika Rivers Wakirike
Olodiama (East) Bayelsa
Olodiama (West) Edo
Opobo Rivers
Opokuma Bayelsa
Oporoma Bayelsa Oporomo
Oruma Bayelsa Tugbene
Oyakiri Bayelsa Beni
Seimbiri Delta
Tarakiri (East) Bayelsa
Tarakiri (West) Delta
Tungbo Bayelsa
Tuomo Delta / Bayelsa T.T Clan
Ukomu Edo
Zarama Bayelsa

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HISTORY

History of Lagos State, Nigeria

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About Lagos State

Lagos is the land of the Nigerian dream. It is the ‘New York’ of Nigeria and our country depends on this city for trends, for commerce, for innovation and for everything that is good. Lagos has been called the ‘commercial capital’ of Nigeria and a ‘no man’s land’ but few people know why. This article will present you with a brief history and some interesting facts about ‘Lasgidi’.

See: History of Kano State, Nigeria

Lagos is the smallest state in Nigeria with only 3,577 square kilometers. The area was called Lagos in 1427 by Portuguese explorers; until then, it was called Eko which meant “a war camp”.

History

Early history

Before the Portuguese name of Lagos had been adopted, Lagos’ initial name was Eko which referred mainly to the Island. The first to settle in Eko were the Aworis. The Awori hunters and fishermen had originally come from Ile-Ife to the coast. The name Eko comes either from the Yoruba “Oko” (cassava farm) or “Eko” (war camp). Over 650 years ago, the Oba of Bini sent warriors to Eko who were received in a welcoming manner by the residing Awori fishermen. The Bini Prince, Ado, who led the war party, was asked to become their leader. From that point on, Eko belonged to Yoruba.

Postcolonial Era

Lagos State was created on 27 May 1967 according to the State Creation and Transitional Provisions Decree No. 14 of 1967, which restructured Nigeria into a Federation of 12 states. Before the issuance of this Decree, Lagos city, which was the country’s capital had been administered directly by the Federal Government through the Federal Ministry of Lagos Affairs. However, Ikeja, Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe and Badagry were administered by the then Western Region Government. Lagos, the city, along with these other towns were captured to create the state of Lagos, with the state becoming fully recognized as a semi-autonomous administrative division on 11 April 1968. Lagos served the dual role of being the State and Federal Capital until 1976, when the capital of the State was moved to Ikeja. After the full establishment of the Federal Capital Territory, the seat of the Federal Government was also formally relocated to Abuja on 12 December 1991. Nevertheless, Lagos still remains the financial centre of the country, and also grew to become the most populous city in the state and the country.

Cities and Towns

Lagos

Lagos is the most populous city in the state and in Nigeria as a whole. The conurbation is one of the most populous in the world. As of 2015, the population of Lagos city was approximately 16 million. Lagos is a port which originated on islands separated by creeks, such as Lagos Island, fringing the southwest mouth of Lagos Lagoon while protected from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier islands and long sand spits such as Bar Beach, which stretch up to 100 kilometres (62 miles) east and west of the mouth. The metropolitan area of Lagos includes Ikeja (which is the capital of Lagos State) and Agege and Mushin.

Ikeja

Ikeja is the state capital of Lagos State. Prior to the emergence of military rule in the early 1980s, Ikeja was a well planned, clean and quiet residential and commercial town with shopping malls, pharmacies and government reservation areas. The Murtala Mohammed International Airport is in Ikeja. Ikeja is also home to Femi Kuti’s African Shrine and Lagbaja’s Motherland, both live music venues. It now boasts a shopping mall, Ikeja City Mall, which is the largest mall in the Mainland of Lagos State and also has a cinema.

Lekki

Lekki is a city in the south eastern part of the state. It is a naturally formed peninsula, which is still largely under construction. As of 2015, only phase 1 of the project has been completed, with phase 2 nearing completion. The peninsula is approximately 70 to 80 km long, with an average width of 10 km. Lekki currently houses several estates, gated residential developments, agricultural farmlands, areas allocated for a Free Trade Zone, an airport, and a sea port under construction. The proposed land use master plan for the Lekki envisages the Peninsula as a “Blue-Green Environment City”, expected to accommodate over 3.4 million residential population and an additional non-residential population of at least 1.9 million.

See also: History of Kaduna State, Nigeria

Ikorodu

Ikorodu is a city located north east of the state along the Lagos Lagoon. It shares a boundary with Ogun State. As of the 2006 Census Ikorodu had a population of 535,619.

Eko Atlantic

Eko Atlantic is a planned city being constructed on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean. It is located on former Lagos’ Bar Beach. Upon completion, the new island which is still under development is anticipating at least 250,000 residents and a daily flow of at least 150,000 commuters. The development will also have a positive environmental impact; its purpose is to stop the erosion of the Lagos coastline. The Eko Atlantic City project received global recognition in 2009, as the Lagos State government and its private sector partners on the Project, South Energyx, received the Clinton Global Initiative Commitment Certificate.

Badagry

Badagry is a coastal town in the state. It is situated between Metropolitan Lagos, and the border with Benin at Seme. As of the preliminary 2006 census results, the municipality had a population of 241,093.

Epe

Epe is a town located on the north side of the Lekki Lagoon. It is popular for the fishing activities attributed to the city. Per the 2006 Census the population of Epe was 181,409.

Ojo

Ojo is a town with a population of 507,693. Lagos State University is in this town.

Economy

Lagos State is a major economic centre of Nigeria. It would be the fifth largest economy in Africa if it were a country.

Its total generated revenue in 2017 was around ₦334 billion (equivalent to US$920 million), growing by 10.43% compared to 2016.

Government

Since its creation in 1967, the state has been administered either by a governor and a House of Assembly in civilian or quasi-civilian (under Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida’s administration) federal administrations, or by Sole-Administrators or Military Administrators in military dispensations. Since December 2007, Yoruba has been the second official language of debate and discussion for the House of Assembly after English.

Administrative Divisions and Local Government Areas

Lagos State is divided into five administrative divisions, which are further divided into 20 local government areas, or LGAs. They are:

LGA name Area (km2) Census 2006
population
Administrative capital Postal
code
Agege 11 459,939 Agege 100
Alimosho 185 1,277,714 Ikotun 100
Ifako-Ijaye 27 427,878 Ifako 100
Ikeja 46 313,196 Ikeja 100
Kosofe 81 665,393 Kosofe 100
Mushin 17 633,009 Mushin 100
Oshodi-Isolo 45 621,509 Oshodi/Isolo 100
Shomolu 12 402,673 Shomolu 101
Ikeja Division 424 4,801,311
Apapa 27 217,362 Apapa 101
Eti-Osa 192 287,785 Ikoyi 101
Lagos Island 9 209,437 Lagos Island 101
Lagos Mainland 19 317,720 Lagos Mainland 101
Surulere 23 503,975 Surulere 101
Lagos Division 270 1,542,279
Ajeromi-Ifelodun 12 684,105 Ajeromi/Ifelodun 102
Amuwo-Odofin 135 318,166 Festac Town 102
Ojo 158 598,071 Ojo 102
Badagry 441 241,093 Badagry 103
Badagry Division 746 1,841,435
Ikorodu 394 535,619 Ikorodu 104
Ikorodu Division 394 535,619
Ibeju-Lekki 455 117,481 Akodo 105
Epe 1,185 181,409 Epe 106
Epe Division 1,640 298,890
Total 3,474 9,019,534 Ikeja

The first 16 of the above LGAs comprise the statistical area of Metropolitan Lagos. The remaining four LGAs (Badagry, Ikorodu, Ibeju-Lekki and Epe) are within Lagos State but are not part of Metropolitan Lagos.

In 2003, many of the existing 20 LGAs were split for administrative purposes into Local Council Development Areas. These lower-tier administrative units now number 56: Agbado/Oke-Odo, Agboyi/Ketu, Agege, Ajeromi, Alimosho, Apapa, Apapa-Iganmu, Ayobo/Ipaja, Badagry West, Badagry, Bariga, Coker Aguda, Egbe Idimu, Ejigbo, Epe, Eredo, Eti Osa East, Eti Osa West, Iba, Isolo, Imota, Ikoyi, Ibeju, Ifako-Ijaiye, Ifelodun, Igando/Ikotun, Igbogbo/Bayeku, Ijede, Ikeja, Ikorodu North, Ikorodu West, Ikosi Ejinrin, Ikorodu, Ikorodu West, Iru/Victoria Island, Itire Ikate, Kosofe, Lagos Island West, Lagos Island East, Lagos Mainland, Lekki, Mosan/Okunola, Mushin, Odi Olowo/Ojuwoye, Ojo, Ojodu, Ojokoro, Olorunda, Onigbongbo, Oriade, Orile Agege, Oshodi, Oto-Awori, Shomolu, Surulere and Yaba.

Tertiary educational institutions in Lagos State

  • University of Lagos
  • Lagos State College of Health Technology
  • Lagos State University
  • Lagos Business School
  • Caleb University
  • Yaba College of Technology
  • Lagos State Polytechnic
  • Pan-African University
  • Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education
  • Lagos City Polytechnic
  • Wolex Polytechnic
  • Eko College of Management and Technology, ikotun
  • St Augustine College of Education, Akoka
  • Michael Otedola College of Primary Education
  • National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos study centres
  • Federal College of Education, Akoka
  • Nigerian Institute of Journalism, Ikeja
  • Augustine University Ilara, Epe
  • Federal College of Orthopedic Technology, Igbobi

People

While the state is essentially a Yoruba-speaking environment, it is a socio-cultural melting pot attracting both Nigerians and foreigners alike.

Indigenous inhabitants include the Aworis and Eguns in Ikeja and Badagry Divisions respectively, with the Eguns being found mainly in Badagry.

There is also an admixture of other pioneer settlers collectively known as the Ekos.

The indigenes of Ikorodu and Epe Divisions are mainly the Ijebus with pockets of Eko-Awori settlers along the coastland and riverine areas.

Notable people

  • Femi Ojo Ade, writer
  • Jimi Agbaje, politician
  • Henry Ajomale, politician
  • Rilwan Akiolu, Oba of Lagos
  • Akinwunmi Ambode, State Governor
  • Ayodele Awojobi, academic
  • Muiz Banire, lawyer
  • Henry Rawlingson Carr, educator
  • Babatunde Fashola, politician
  • Femi Gbajabiamila, politician
  • Bode George, politician
  • Adekunle Gold, singer
  • Amy Jadesimi, businesswoman
  • Oladipo Jadesimi, businessman
  • Mobolaji Johnson, military governor
  • Fela Kuti, musician
  • Herbert Macaulay, nationalist
  • Musiliu Obanikoro, politician
  • Hakeem Olajuwon, basketball player
  • Babatunde Olatunji, musician
  • Bruce Onobrakpeya, artist
  • Wole Soyinka, writer
  • Bola Tinubu, politician
  • Madam Efunroye Tinubu, aristocrat
  • Oluremi Tinubu, politician
  • Funsho Williams, politician

Transportation

Murtala Mohammed International Airport in Ikeja is one of Nigeria’s five major international airports.

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HISTORY

History of Kano State, Nigeria

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About Kano State

Kano State is a state located in North-Western Nigeria. Created on May 27, 1967 from part of the Northern Region, Kano state borders Katsina State to the north-west, Jigawa State to the north-east, and Bauchi and Kaduna states to the south. The capital of Kano State is Kano.

Kano State is the second largest industrial center in Nigeria and the largest in Northern Nigeria with textile, tanning, footwear, cosmetics, plastics, enamelware, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, furniture and other industries. Others include agricultural implements, soft drinks, food and beverages, dairy products, vegetable oil, animal feeds etc.

History

The Hausa Kingdom of Kano was based on an ancient settlement of Dalla Hill. While small chiefdoms were previously present in the area, according to the Kano Chronicle, Bagauda, a grandson of the mythical hero Bayajidda,. became the first king of Kano in 999, reigning until 1063. Muhammad Rumfa ascended to the throne in 1463 and reigned until 1499.

During his reign he reformed the city, expanded the Sahelian Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace), and played a role in the further Islamization of the city as he urged prominent residents to convert. The Hausa state remained independent until the Fulani conquest of 1805.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Fulani Islamic leader Usman dan Fodio led a jihad affecting much of northern Nigeria, leading to the emergence of the Sokoto Caliphate. Kano became the largest and most prosperous province of the empire. This was one of the last major slave societies, with high percentages of enslaved population long after the Atlantic slave trade had been cut off.

Heinrich Barth, a classical scholar who spent several years in northern Nigeria in the 1850s, estimated the percentage of slaves in Kano to be at least 50%, most of whom lived in slave villages.
The Kano Chronicle stated that the Kingdom of Kano was founded as one of the Seven True Hausa States or Hausa Bakwai by Baguada in 999. Bagauda was a grandson of Abuyazidu (Bayajda), who was acknowledged by legend to be the origin of the Hausa people. During the rule of King Gajemasu from 1095 to 1134, the kingdom’s capital was transferred from Sheme towards the current location. In 1340s, Islam was introduced to Kano by Malinke scholars, who originated from Mali Empire. Yaji, who ruled from 1349 to 1385, may have been the first Muslim king of Hausa. The religion Islam got the blame for Kano’s loss against Zaria around 1400 and it was relinquished by King Kanajeji.

People & Culture

Image result for Kano State Culture

According to the 2016 PON census (unofficial) figures from Nigeria Kano State had a population totaling 9,383,682. Officially, Kano State is the most populous state in the country. The state is mostly populated by Hausa people.
The official language of Kano State is Hausa language, but Fulani languages is commonly spoken.

Geography

Kano State of the Federal Republic of Nigeria lies between latitude 130N in the North and 110N in the South and longitude 80W in the West and 100E in the East. Kano State is made up of the following forty four local government areas: Ajingi, Albasu, Bagwai, Bebeji, Bichi, Bunkure, Dala, Dambatta, Dawakin Kudu, Dawakin Tofa, Doguwa, Gabasawa, Garko, Garun Mallam, Gaya, Gezawa, Gwale, Gwarzo, Kabo, Karaye, Kibiya, Kiru, Kumbotso, Kura, Kunchi, Madobi, Makoda, Minjibir, Kano Municipal, Nassarawa, Rimin Gado, Rogo, Shanono, Sumaila, Takai, Tarauni, Tsanyawa, Tudun Wada, Tofa, Warawa and Wudil. The total land area of Kano State is 20,760sq kilometers with a population of 9,383,682 (2006 provisional result). Some Local Government areas of Jigawa State were part of Kano Emirate before the creation of that state. The people of Kano State who have no other hometown call themselves Kanawa.

Kano City has been the capital of Kano State since the earliest recorded time. It is located on latitude 12.000N and longitude 8.300E within the semi-arid Sudan savannah zone of West Africa about 840 kilometers from the edge of the Sahara desert. Kano has a mean height of about 472.45m above sea level.

Kano City has expanded over the years and has become the third largest conurbation in Nigeria; it had a population of 1,412,255 when the last population census was conducted in 1991. It is made up of six local government areas: Municipal, Gwale, Dala, Tarauni, Nassarawa and Fagge. Kano’s most enduring legacy Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace) the seat of Kano’s prestigious Sarauta institution (Kingship) built over five hundred years ago is located in the Municipal Local Government Area. The Kano State Government House is located in Tarauni Local Government Area.

Climate

The temperature of Kano usually ranges between a maximum of 330C and a minimum of 15.80C although sometimes during the harmattan it falls down to as low as 100C. Kano has two seasonal periods, which consist of four to five months of wet season and a long dry season lasting from October to April. The movement of the South West maritime air masses originating from the Atlantic Ocean, influences the wet season which starts from May and ends in September. The commencement and length of wet season varies between northern and southern parts of Kano State. The length of the season in Riruwai, which is southern part of Kano State is six months from early May to late September. While in northern parts it is from June to early September.

The average rainfall is between 63.3mm + 48.2mm in May and 133.4mm + 59mm in August the wettest month. The movement of the tropical maritime air masses from the Southwest to the North determines the weather of Kano State during the wet season. This air mass carries a lot of moisture from over the Atlantic Ocean. This moisture condenses when it is forced to rise by convection or over a barrier of highlands or an air mass; it then falls back as rain. The period of the heights occurs when the sun passes over West Africa between March and June.

The dry season starts in October and lasts till about April of the following year. Temperatures are low during this period because the sun is in the Southern Hemisphere and because of movement of the desiccating continental air mass, which originates from the Sahara area and blows from the Northeast carrying along with it the harmattan dust. This is also the harvesting season.

Vegetation

The vegetation of Kano State is the semi-arid savannah. The Sudan Savannah is sandwiched by the Sahel Savannah in the north and the Guinea Savannah in the south. The savannah has been described as the zone that provides opportunity for optimal human attainment. This is because it is rich in faunal and floral resources, it is suitable for both cereal agriculture and livestock rearing, and the environment is relatively easy for movement of natural resources and manufactured goods (Connah 1987: 97-99).

The canopies of the trees are very wide and most of them are less than 20m tall. The following are the common trees of Kano State: Acacia albida (Hausa: gawo), Acacia nilotica (Hausa: gabaruwa), baobab Adanosia digitata (Hausa: kuka), Anogeissus leiocarpus (Hausa: marke), neem Azadirachta indica (Hausa: dogon yaro), desert date Balanties aegyptica (Hausa aduwa), ebony Diospyros mespiliformis (Hausa: kanya), mahogany Khaya senegalensis (Hausa: madachi), locust bean Parkia clappertoniana (Hausa: dorawa), Piliostigma thonningii (Hausa: kargo), Sclerocarya birrea (Hausa: danya), Vitex doniana (Hausa: dinya), Ziziphus spina-christi (Hausa: kurna) (Nichol 1988). These trees are very resistant to drought.

It has been suggested that these products have been available as part of the vegetable resources in the West African savannah for two to three thousand years. Domesticated crops include sorghum, millet and African rice, several indigenous yams, two African groundnuts, cowpeas and black beniseed (Connah 1987:101).

The natural vegetation of Kano State has been modified as result of several centuries of human activities such as bush clearing and burning for cultivation and hunting as well as animal grazing.

Economy and society

Agriculture

Subsistence and commercial agriculture is mostly practiced in the outlying districts of the state. Some of the food crops cultivated are millet, cowpeas, sorghum, maize and rice for local consumption while groundnuts and cotton are produced for export and industrial purposes. During the colonial period and several years after the country’s independence, the groundnuts produced in the state constituted one of the major sources revenue of the country. Kano State is a major producer of hides and skins, sesame, soybean, cotton, garlic, gum arabic and chili pepper.

Related Post: Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport and Location

Commerce

Commercial activities in Kano first developed with the establishment of the Kurmi market by the Emir of Kano Muhammadu Rumfa in the 16th Century CE. Subsequent leaders made contributions to the emergence of Kano as a leading commercial center in Sudanic Africa. During the Caliphate period in the 19th century the Emirs Ibrahim Dabo and Sulaimanu encouraged traders to move from Katsina, capitalising on raids from the Hausa Sultanate of Maradi. The Jihad leaders of the Caliphate encouraged Kola nut trade and Kano was the greatest beneficiary with an annual turnover of about $30 million. Craft industries also evolved in the pre-colonial period contributing to the prosperity of the province.

Industry

Kano State is the second largest industrial center after Lagos State in Nigeria and the largest in Northern Nigeria with textile, tanning, footwear, cosmetics, plastics, enamelware, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, furniture and other industries. Others include agricultural implements, soft drinks, food and beverages, dairy products, vegetable oil, animal feeds etc.

Tourism

The tourist attractions in the state include:

  • Kurmi Market established in the 15th century,
  • Kano’s centuries-old city wall,
  • Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace, the oldest continuous site of authority in Nigeria)
  • kano zoo. Zoo road

Universities

Kano state is blessed with universities which include one federal, two states universities and one first private university.

  • Bayero University Kano (BUK) founded in the year 1977.
  • Kano State University of Technology (KUT), currently Kano University of Science and Technology (KUST), created in the year 2000.
  • Yusuf Maitama Sule University Kano (YUSMUK), formerly known as North West University, Kano (NWU, kano) established in 2012.
  • Skyline University Nigeria (SUN) founded in the year 2018.

Research Centers

The research centers and institute in Kano State:

  • Aminu Kano Center for Democratic Research & Training
  • Center For Research and Documentation, Kano
  • Institute For Agricultural Research, Kano
  • Digital Bridge Institute, Kano

Polytechnics and Colleges

List of the approved Polytechnics and Colleges in the state of Kano.

  • Federal College of Education, Kano
  • Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi
  • Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano
  • Kano State Polytechnic
  • Kano State School of Health Technology
  • Kano State School of Hygiene
  • Kano state College of Arts, Sciences and Remedial Studies (CAS,Kano)
  • Rabi’u Musa Kwankwaso College of Advance and Remedial Studies (RMK CARS,T/Wada)
  • Audu Bako School of Agriculture, Dambatta
  • Aminu Kano College of Islamic and Legal Studies, Kano
  • Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kano
  • Aminu Dabo School of Health Sciences & Technology

Local Government Areas

Kano State consists of forty-four (44) Local Government Areas (LGAs). They are:

LGA Name Area (km2) Census 2006
population
Administrative capital Postal
Code
Local Government Chairman and the Head of the Local Government Council
Fagge 21 200,095 Waje 700 Alh. Habibu Saleh Mai Lemo (APC)
Dala 19 418,759 Gwanmaja 700 Alh. Ibrahim Suleiman Dan’isle (APC)
Gwale 18 357,827 Gwale 700 Alh. Abdullahi Zubair Imam (APC)
Kano Municipal 17 371,243 Kofar Kudu 700 Alh. Mukhtari Ishaq Yakasai (APC)
Tarauni 28 221,844 Unguwa Uku 700 Engr. (Dr.) Mukhtar Umar Zakari (APC)
Nassarawa 34 596,411 Bompai 700 Alh. Lamin Sani Kawaji (APC)
Kumbotso 158 294,391 Kumbotso 700 Alh. Lawan Isma’il (APC)
Ungogo 204 365,737 Ungogo 700 Alh. Shehu Aliyu Ungogo (APC)
Kano Metropolitan Area 499 2,828,861 700
Dawakin Tofa 479 246,197 Dawakin Tofa 701 Alh. Saleh Rabiu (APC)
Tofa 202 98,603 Tofa 701 Alh. Yaro Inuwa (APC)
Rimin Gado 225 103,371 Rimin Gado 701 Alh. Halliru Audu Yalwa (APC)
Bagwai 405 161,533 Bagwai 701 Alh. Ado Isyaku Daddauda (APC)
Gezawa 340 282,328 Gezawa 702 Alh. Ibrahim Isa Jogana (APC)
Gabasawa 605 211,204 Zakirai 702 Alh. Ghali Adamu Garun Danga (APC)
Minjibir 416 219,611 Minjibir 702 Alh. Nasiru Garba Kunya (APC)
Dambatta 732 210,474 Dambatta 702 Muhammadu Audu Wango (APC)
Makoda 441 220,094 Makoda 702 Abubakar Salisu Makoda (APC)
Kunchi 671 110,170 Kunchi 703 Alh. Aminu Adamu Gwarmai (APC)
Bichi 612 278,309 Bichi 703 Alh. Muhammad Sani Muqaddas (APC)
Tsanyawa 492 157,730 Tsanyawa 703 Alh. Safiyanu Muhammad (APC)
Shanono 697 139,128 Shanono 704 Alh. Malami Ibrahim Shanono (APC)
Gwarzo 393 183,624 Gwarzo 704 Alh. Sunusi Abdullahi Gwarzo (APC)
Karaye 479 144,045 Karaye 704 Alh. Ibrahim Ahmad Karaye (APC)
Rogo 802 227,607 Rogo 704 Alh. Abubakar Mustapha Rogo (APC)
Kabo 341 153,158 Kabo 704 Alh. Mamuda Idris Kabo (APC)
Northern Kano State 8,332 3,143,899 701 to 704
Bunkure 487 174,467 Bunkure 710 Alh. Rabiu Bala (APC)
Kibiya 404 138,618 Kibiya 710 Yusuf Shehu Kibiya (APC)
Rano 520 148,276 Rano 710 Alh. Muhammadu Ubale Dan-Kawu (APC)
Tudun Wada 1,204 228,658 Tudun Wada 710 Engr. Ibrahim Nayola (APC)
Doguwa 1,473 150,645 Riruwai 710 Alh. Ali Abdu Doguwa (APC)
Madobi 273 137,685 Madobi 711 Alh. Lurwanu Umar Kanwa (APC)
Kura 206 143,094 Kura 711 Alh. Basiru Abubakar Turaki (APC)
Garun Mallam 214 118,622 Garun Mallam 711 Alh. Sa’adu Abashe (APC)
Bebeji 717 191,916 Bebeji 711 Alh. Mudansir Umar Bebeji (APC)
Kiru 927 267,168 Kiru 711 Nasiru Mu’azu Kiru (APC)
Sumaila 1,250 250,379 Sumaila 712 Abdulhamid Idris Rimi (APC)
Garko 450 161,966 Garko 712 Arc. Hamza Said Garun Ali (APC)
Takai 598 202,639 Takai 712 Alh. Inusa Abdullahi Dambazau (APC)
Albasu 398 187,639 Albasu 712 Alh. Hamisu Abdulhamid (APC)
Gaya 613 207,419 Gaya 713 Alh. Lawan Saleh (APC)
Ajingi 714 172,610 Ajingi 713 Alh. Isa Abdulkadir Tsangaya (APC)
Wudil 362 188,639 Wudil 713 Bello Abubakar (APC)
Warawa 360 131,858 Warawa 713 Alh. Ibrahim Abdullahi Danlasan (APC)
Dawakin Kudu 384 225,497 Dawakin Kudu 713 Alh. Maikudi Yusuf ‘Yargaya (APC)
Southern Kano State 11,554 3,410,922 710 to 713

Languages

The official language of Kano State is Hausa language, but Fulani languages is commonly spoken.

Population

According to the 2006 PON census figures from Nigeria Kano State had a population totaling 9,401,288. Officially, Kano State is the most populous state in the country. The state is mostly populated by Hausa people.

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