History Of Adamawa State : Full Geographical map,Culture & Tribe| Local Goverment Historical background | languages and People. “Full Details”
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History Of Adamawa State: Full Geographical map,Culture & Tribe| Local Government Historical background | languages and People. “Full Details”
Facts About Adamawa State
Adamawa State is one of the largest states and occupies about 36,917 square kilometres. It is bordered by the states of Borno to the northwest, Gombe to the west and Taraba to the southwest. Its eastern border also forms the national eastern border with Cameroon. Topographically, it is a mountainous land crossed by the large river valleys – Benue, Gongola and Yedsarem. The valleys of Cameroon, Mandara and Adamawa mountains form part of the landscape.
Adamawa is a state in northeastern Nigeria, with its capital at Yola. It was formed in 1991 from part of Gongola State with four administrative divisions namely: Adamawa, Ganye, Mubi and Numan. It is one of the thirty-six (36) States which constitute the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
The major occupation of the people is farming as reflected in their two notable vegetational zones, tile Sub-Sudan and Northern Guinea Savannah Zone. Their cash crops are cotton and groundnuts while food crops include maize, yam, cassava, guinea corn, millet and rice. The village communities living on the banks of the rivers engage in fishing while the Fulanis are cattle rearers. The state has network of roads linking all parts of the country.
The development of many communities in the State can be traced to the colonial era when the Germans ruled the Ganye area in the 19th century. These were however forfeited to the British at the end of the scramble for Africa at the Berlin.
On May 14, 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Adamawa State, along with neighboring Borno State and Yobe State, due to the activities of Boko Haram.
History Of Adamawa State.
Main article: Adamawa Emirate
Before it became a state in Nigeria, Adamawa was a subordinate kingdom of the Sultanate of Sokoto which also included much of northern Cameroon. The rulers bear the title of emir (“lamido” in the local language, Fulfulde).
The name “Adamawa” came from the founder of the kingdom, Modibo Adama, a regional leader of the Fulani Jihad organized by Usman dan Fodio of Sokoto in 1804. Modibo Adama came from the region of Gurin (now just a small village) and in 1806, received a green flag for leading the jihad in his native country. In the following years, Adama conquered many lands and tribes. In 1838, he moved his capital to Ribadu, and in 1839, to Joboliwo. In 1841, he founded Yola, where he died in 1848. After the European colonization (first by Germany and then by Britain), the rulers remained as emirs and the line of succession has continued to the present day.
Adamawa was created out of Gongola State on 27th August, 1991 as one of the nine new states created by the Federal Military Government. It is located in the North Eastern part of the country. Prior to its creation in 1991, it was part of the North Eastern StateS from 1967 to February 1976 and Gongola State 1976 – 1991.
Emirs of Adamawa State
Modibbo Adama ben Hassan, 1809–1848
Lawalu ben Adama, 1848–1872 (son of the previous)
Sanda ben Adama, 1872–1890 (brother of the previous)
Zubayru ben Adama, 1890–1901 (brother of the previous)
Bobbo Ahmadu ben Adama, 1901–1909 (brother of the previous)
Iya ben Sanda, 1909–1910 (son of Sanda ben Adama)
Muhammadu Abba, 1910–1924 (son of Bobbo Ahmadu ben Adama)
Muhammadu Bello ben Ahmadu ben Hamidu ben Adamu, 1924–1928
Mustafa ben Muhammadu Abba, 1928–1946 (son of Muhammadu Abba)
Ahmadu ben Muhammadu Bello, 1946–1953
Aliyu Mustafa, 1953–2010
Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Musdafa, 2011–present
Adamawa State Full Geographical map
Adamawa State Tribes and cultures
Tribes in Adamawa state
The Kanuri tribe in Adamawa state is almost as the Hausa and Fulani tribes in the state. The Kanuri people have their roots in Bornu state. In pre-colonial days, the Kanuri people were a key part of the ancient Bornu-Kamem Empire. They were war gallant horse-men and were in charge of the horses in the ancient empire.
The Kanuris are predominantly Muslims and have farming as their major occupation. Millet, maize, and rice are staples in this tribe.
It is believed that indigenes of the Babur tribe moved to present day Adamawa from Yemen through Sudan and the Sahara desert. The Babur people in Adamawa are resident majorly in Gombi local government area. Although the average Nigerian believes the Babur people speak Hausa language. However, their language is described as Afro-Asiatic, Biu-Mandara and Chadic and is not Hausa language.
Babur people are easily identified by their intonation and independence. Also, they eat shaptang ka dana, taraku and kavila. They are predominantly Muslims and are known for their Arabian like robes and turbans.
People from the Fulani tribe are easily identified by people of other Nigerian tribes because they are known for cattle rearing. Although this is not their only cultural heritage, it is a major part of their culture. Apart from the fact that the Fulani people rear cattle, not much is known about them.
The Fulanis have a lot in common with the Hausas, it is believed that this people are migrants from the Middle East. They are probably the first tribe in Nigeria to come in contact with Islam. They are also responsible for the spread of Islam is the northern part of Nigeria. Although not all Fulanis are nomads, most people believe that they all are.
Fulani men are known to put on flowing gowns known as Babban riga while Fulani women tie wrappers on blouse. Meals made from millet, rice and maize are a staple in this tribe.
The Bachama people are also known as Bwatiyes. They are a people that are found majorly in Lamurde in Adamawa state. It is not exactly known where the Bachama people migrated from. However, their origin is strongly linked to Sokoto. The Bachama tribe remains one of the few unconquered tribes after the invasion by the Fulani Jihadists.
Before contact with Islam, the Bachama tribe had shrines just like most other tribes in Africa. However, after contact with Islam, some of them now practice Islam but the majority of the Bachama tribe are Christians. Farming and fishing are their major occupations.
The people of Bachama have a variety of meals. Food is one thing this tribe possesses in ample quantity. The most common foods eaten by this people are millet, rice, maize and sorghum. Bachama men put on long flowing gowns called babban riga while women from this tribe put on blouses and abaya. Usually, they cover their heads with hijabs.
The Banso tribe was originally known as the Nso until they were conquered by the Fulanis in the 17th century. The Banso tribe can be found in both Nigeria and Cameroon. In Nigeria, they are found in the Sauduna local government area. Although they are northerners, they do not speak the Hausa language. They speak a language called Lamnso which is however similar to the Hausa language.
The Baso people are regarded as very ‘diabolic’ and are very well known for their magical powers. Islam is the major religion practiced by this people. Banso tribe has farming as its major occupation.
Just like other tribes in northern Nigeria, the Banso people eat maize, millet and rice. Their men put on Baban riga ahile the women tie wrappers on blouses and cover their heads with hijabs.
Gombi doubles as both a tribe and a local government area in Adamawa state. People of this tribe are into farming and trading. The religion practiced by this tribe is mostly idol worshipping. Although very few of them are Muslims. The home of the Gombi people has been under attack by members of the Boko Haram sect in recent times. As a result of this, present day Gombi is unoccupied.
The Gombi people have a lot in common with their Hausa neighbors. They feed on maize, millet and rice. Also their men put own flowing gowns known as Baban riga while their women tie wrappers on blouses and also cover their heads with hijabs.
The Koma tribe is a primitive tribe. People from Koma occupy the Atlantika Mountains. This tribe is made up of 11 villages. Koma in present day Nigeria is located in Jada local government area. The Koma people speak the Koma language and have a population 61,000.Men from Koma put on loincloths while women put on fresh leaves
The Gude people are found in present day Mubi in Adamawa state. This tribe is one of the many tribes in Northern Nigeria that has been under serious attacks by Boko Haram terrorists. The Gude people are mostly cattle rearers. Also, Islam is the major religion that is practiced by members of this tribe.
Men from Gude put on flowing gowns that are called Baban riga and occasionally cover their heads with caps. Women from this tribe tie wrappers on blouses and also cover their heads with hijabs.
Food eaten by people of this tribe include maize, sorghum, millet and rice. Due to the fact that this tribe practices Islam, most of their ancient traditions have been completely replaced by Islamic customs.
The Gudu people can be found in the Song local government area in present day Adamawa state. They speak an Afro-Asiatic language known as Gudu. There are about 10,000 Gudu people living in Nigeria. There are also some Gudu people living in Cameroon. The mode of dressing of this people is very similar to that of the Fulani and Hausa. Women from this tribe put on blouses covered by wrappers and also cover their heads with hijabs. Men from this tribe put on flowing gowns called Babban riga and occasionally cover their heads with caps. Meals consumed by the Gudu people are usually made from millet, maize and rice.
The people of Gudu are mostly farmers and predominantly Muslims.
The Bata people occupy Mubi, Song and Numan local government areas in Adamawa state. An afro-asiatic language with many dialects is spoken by the Bata tribe. Just very few people from Bata have left their place of origin. As a result of this, not very much is known about the people of Bata except the fact that they are predominantly Muslims and practice farming and cattle rearing.
The people of Bata share a lot with their northern neighbors. Their men put own flowing gowns while the women tie wrappers on blouses and cover their heads with hijabs. Also meals are made from millet, maize and rice.
The Baya people are known for putting up resistance to the French. They have their origin in Adamawa state. However, they are also found in Cameroon, Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo.
The people of this tribe are predominantly Christians. However, witchcraft is still very widely practiced in this tribe. Men from Baya put on flowing gowns while women tie wrappers on blouses and cover their heads with hijabs.
Farming is the main occupation that is practiced by people of this tribe. They cultivate maize, yam, tobacco, rice, and coffee. Also, the Baya people are known for their knife throwing skills.
Bille is both a tribe as well as a town in North-east Nigeria. Bille is located about 11 miles from the road that leads to Jalingo. The language that is spoken by this tribe is called “Bille.” It was named after the tribe.
The people of Bille are known for farming, and the making of baskets and calabashes. Also, Christianity is the predominant religion in this tribe. Dressing by people of this tribe is just like that of most norther tribes. The men put on flowing gowns that are known as Babban riga while the women tie wrappers on blouses and cover their heads with hijabs.
There is no much information about the origin of this tribe. However, the people of this tribe are found in Adamawa and speak Hausa. The people of Botlere are majorly farmers and practice Christianity.
Men from Botlere put on flowing gowns while women tie wrappers on blouses and also cover their heads with hijabs. Food eaten by the Botlere people is usually made with with maize, millet and rice.
The Bura peple are found in Gombi local government area in Adamawa state. Until very recently, the Bura tribe had a very strong tribe with a rich cultural identity among tribes in Adamawa state . However, there seems to be a rapid disappearance of the traditions and culture of the Bura tribe. The Bura people are neighbors with the Hausas and seem to have adopted the Hausa way of life.
Islam is the predominant religion that is practiced by people of this tribe. Also, farming is the major occupation of the Bura tribe. Men from Bura put on flowing gowns while women tie wrappers on blouses and also cover their heads with hijabs.
The Daka people of Adamawa State are one with the Daka tribe that is found in Cameroon. The Daka people are skilled artists. Their sculpture and many metal works speak volume of the skills of this people. The Daka people are neither Muslims nor Christians. They practice a religion called Chamba.
The Daka people dress just like the Fulanis and Hausas. Men from Daka put on flowing gowns while their women tie wrappers on blouses and cover their heads with hijabs.
The Daba people in Nigeria are a minority when compared to the Daba people that are found in Cameroon. They are predominantly Muslims and engage majorly in farming. The language spoken by this tribe is called the Daba language.
Daba women put on blouses and wrappers and cover their heads with hijab. Men from Daba put on flowing gowns called Babban riga. Meals eaten by the Daba tribe are usually made from millet and sorghum.
The Fyer tribe is one of the many tribes in Adamawa state. There are about 50,000 indegenes of this tribe. The Fyer people are farmers and speak a language called Fie. Also, they are predominantly traditionalists.
Fyer men dress like other northern men, they put on flowing gowns while their women tie wrappers on blouses and cover their heads with hijabs.
Meals eaten by this people are usually made from millet, maize and sorghum.
Gombi is both a tribe and a local government area in Adamawa state. Not much is known about their history. However, this tribe has a lot in common with other neighboring tribes.
Farming is the main occupation of this people while Islam is the predominant religion. Men from this tribe put on Babban riga while women tie wrappers on blouses and cover their heads with hijabs.
more Tribes in Adamawa state
The Gwa tribe is one of the many unknown tribes in Northern Nigeria. They are Muslims and practice farming as an occupation. The people of this tribe have adopted the Hausa way of life in their dressing and food.
The people of Gudu speak an afro-asiatic language that is known as Gudu. They occupy Song local government area of Adamawa state. The tradition of the Gudu people is very much influenced by Islam. Women and men from this tribe dress like average northerners. Farming and cattle rearing are the major occupations of this people.
Maize, rice and millet are staples that are eaten by people from Gudu.
The Gude people live in Mubi town. They speak a language called Gude and have the Fali and Nzanyi people as their neighbors.
Islam is the major religion of the Gude tribe while farming is the generally practiced occupation. Gude women and men have adopted the general Hausa way of dressing and feeding.
The Gira people of Adamawa are very similar to the Hausas in their way of life. They are Muslims, they practice farming and also dress like their Hausa neighbours. Meals that are made from maize, millet, sorghum and rice are the basic foods the people of Gira feed on.
Gizigz tribe is a minority tribe in Adamawa state. The people of this tribe have not mixed up much with the outside world. As a result of this, their way of life is basically affected by their religion, Islam.
Men from Gizigz put on flowing gowns while women tie wrappers on blouses and cover their heads with hijabs.
Farming is the major occupation of this tribe while meals are made from maize and millet.
The Hausa tribe is one of the major tribes in Nigeria and also the whole of West Africa. The Hausa people are known by every average Nigeria. Although the Hausas have been in the corridors of political power since independence, no body from this tribe has been president of Nigeria. The Hausa tribe is characterized by a rich minority and a poor majority. As a result of this, the poor majority are known to look up to the rich minority for some basic every day necessities.
The Hausa tribe occupies the region of Nigeria with extreme whether conditions. They are farmers and also traders. Islam is the major religion of the Hausa people. Apart from the Fulani tribe, the Hausa tribe is also responsible for the spread and establishment of Islam in Nigeria. Men from this tribe are known to put on flowing gowns that are known as Babban riga, this is most times accompanied by a cap. Women from the Hausa tribe tie wrapper on blouse and usually cover their heads with hijabs. Of all the tribes in Adamawa state, the Hausa people are probably the most popular.
The Bali tribe has a population of about 2000 people, they speak the Bali language. The Bali people are found in Numan, Mayo Belwa and Demsa local government areas. Their major occupations are farming, cattle rearing and trading.
The Bali people claim to have migrated to Nigeria from the Republic of Congo. They settled in areas close to Lake Chad before finally moving into their present location.
Adamawa State local government areas
There are 21 local government areas (LGAs):
Adamawa state Lists Of Languages.
There are 58 languages spoken as first languages in Adamawa State. Major languages of Adamawa State are Bacama/Bata (Bwatiye), Bura-Pabir, Fulfulde, Huba (Kilba), Longuda, Mumuye and Samba Daka. Most other languages in Adamawa State are extremely small and endangered minority languages, due to the influence of Hausa and Fulfulde. Holma is reported to be dying out.
Adamawa state Languages Local Government Area
- Numan and Guyuk LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Bacama
- Numan LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Bali
- Numan, Song, Fufore, and Mubi LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Bata
- Guyuk, Gombi, and Song LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Bena
- Numan LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Bile
- Gombi LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Boga
- Gombi LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Bura-Pabir
- Mubi LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Daba
- Numan LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Dadiya
- Guyuk LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Dera
- Numan LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Dijim-Bwilim
- Mayo-Belwa LGA Speaks ⇔ ZizilivekenDong
- Numan LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Dza
- Mubi and Michika LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Fali
- center in Yola Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Fulfulde
- Ganye LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Gaa
- Gombi LGA. Some also in Song, Guyuk, and Mubi LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Ga’anda
- Mayo-Belwa and Fufore LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Gengle
- Michika LGA ⇔ Gevoko
- Mubi LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Gude
- Song LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Gudu
- Michika LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Higgi
- Spoken north of Sorau on the Cameroon border Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Holma
- Hong, Maiha, Gombi, and Mubi LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Huba
- Gombi LGA, and some in Song and Hong LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Hwana
- Shellen, Song, and Numan LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Kaan
- Michika LGA, in the Mandara Mts Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Kamwe
- Song LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Kofa
- anye and Fufore LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Koma
- Numan LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Kpasham
- Fufore LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Kugama
- Mayo-Belwa and Fufore LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Kumba
- Numan LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Kwa
- Yola LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Laka
- Gombi LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Lala-Roba
- Adamawa State Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Lamang
- Mayo Belwa LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Lamja-Dengsa-Tola
- Guyuk LGA Speaks Speaks Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Ziziliveken Ziziliveken Longuda
- Mubi and Michika LGA’s Speaks Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Ziziliveken Marghi
- Song, Fufore, and Gombi LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Mboi
- Numan, Guyuk, Song, and Demsa LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Mbula-Bwazza
- Yola and Fufore LGA’s, Verre hills Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Mom Jango
- Ganye, Fufore, Yola, Numan, and Mayo Belwa LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Mumuye
- Gombi and Hong LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Ngwaba
- Mayo Belwa LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Nyong
- Maiha LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Nzanyi
- Ganye LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Peere
- north and east of Michika, south of Madagali, in the Mandara Mts Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Psikye
- Ganye and Mayo Belwa LGA’s Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Samba Daka
- Michika LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Sukur
- Mayo Belwa LGA, along the banks of the Mayo Belwa River Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Teme
- Numan LGA Speaks ⇔ ZizilivekenTso
- Michika LGA, Madagali district Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Vemgo-Mabas
- Michika LGA Speaks ⇔ ZizilivekenWaja
- Fufore LGA Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken Wom
- Michika LGA Speaks ⇔ ZizilivekenXedi
- Mayo Belwa and Numan LGA’s Speaks ⇔ ZizilivekenYendang
- Mubi LGA, Jilvu village, Speaks ⇔ Ziziliveken
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